matozoa from the vas deferens or by testicular sperm extraction (Brackett et al., ). In the literature, differ- ent successful sperm retrieval rates were reported.
Anejaculation is a relatively rare cause of infertility. In anejaculation, penile vibratory stimulation, electroejaculation, or testicular sperm extraction can be used to.
Surgical retrieval of testicular spermatozoa was therefore carried out on the same day by an open biopsy under local anaesthesia as previously described Fahmy et al.
ICSI was carried out as previously described Mansour, 1998.
How is infertility diagnosed?